Researchers found that a region of northern Mars called 'Arabia Terra' had experienced hundreds and thousands of "super-eruptions," the biggest volcanic eruptions known till now.
As per NASA, these explosions destroyed the Martian surface for over five hundred-million-year period about four billion years ago. The explosions spewed water vapour, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide into the air.
Evidence was found by studying the topography and mineral composition of a portion of the Arabia Terra region in northern Mars. It showed that some volcanoes can produce massive eruptions so powerful they released oceans of dust particles and toxic gases into the atmosphere and blocked out sunlight and hence changed a planet's climate for decades, and Mars was no exception.
Each of these ''super-eruptions'' would have had a significant climate impact that made the atmosphere thicker and made the temperature colder by blocking the sun.
Volcano of this magnitude collapses into a giant hole and is called a 'caldera'. It gave the hints that the region may once have hosted volcanoes capable of super-eruptions.